Welcome to Tom Ray's publications


Go to Tom Ray's home page. Go to the Tierra home page.


Media coverage about Tierra.

Tierra Photoessay.

Strong, D. R. and T. S. Ray. 1975. Host tree location behavior of a tropical vine ( Monstera gigantea ) by skototropism. Science, 190: 804-06. StrongRay1975Skototropism.pdf.

Ray, T. S. 1976. Skototropism and the Natural History of Some Tropical Vines. Honors thesis in Biology, Florida State University.

Ray, T. S, A. Bien, G. Griswold, D. Lorence, E. Oddo, M. Noble. 1977. Vertical distribution of epiphytes at Monte Verde. In Tropical Biology: An Ecological Approach, #77.3. pp. 279-84. Organization for Tropical Studies, Durham, North Carolina.

Ray, T. S, and B. Brown. 1977. Vine community structure. In Tropical Biology: An Ecological Approach, #77.3. pp. 201-12. Organization for Tropical Studies, Durham, North Carolina.

Griswold, G., and T. S. Ray. 1977. Life history and strange mode of germination of a thistle. In Tropical Biology: An Ecological Approach, #77.3. pp. 249-52. Organization for Tropical Studies, Durham, North Carolina.

Ray, T. S. 1978. Behavior of Tropical Vines. Winner of the 1978 Bowdoin Prize for Essays in the Natural Sciences. Harvard University Archives.

Ray, T. S. 1979. Slow-motion world of plant `behavior' visible in rainforest. Smithsonian 9(12): 121-30. Ray1979Smithsonian.pdf.

Oberbauer, S., L. Boring, K. Herman, D. Lodge, T. Ray, S. Trombulak. 1980. Leaf morphology of Monstera tenuis. In Tropical Biology: An Ecological Approach, #79.1. pp. 24-28. Organization for Tropical Studies, Durham, North Carolina.

Ray, T. S., and C. C. Andrews. 1980. Antbutterflies: Butterflies that follow army ants to feed on antbird droppings. Science 210: 1147-1148. RayAndrews1980Antbutterflies.pdf.

Ray, T. S. 1980. Syngonium oduberi (Araceae): A new species from the Osa Peninsula of Costa Rica. Aroideana 3(4): 128-129. Ray1980Syngonium_oduberi.pdf.

Ray, T. S. 1981. Growth and heterophylly in an herbaceous tropical vine, Syngonium , (Araceae). Ph.D. Thesis, Harvard University. Pp. 104. Ray1981HarvardDoctoralThesis.pdf.

Ray, T. S. 1983. Monstera tenuis. In D. Janzen [ed.], Costa Rican natural history, 278-80. University of Chicago Press. Ray1983Monstera_tenuis.pdf.

Ray, T. S. 1983. Syngonium triphyllum. In D. Janzen [ed.], Costa Rican natural history, 333-35. University of Chicago Press. Ray1983Syngonium_triphyllum.pdf.

Ray, T. S. 1985. The host plant, Erythroxylum (Erythroxylaceae), of Agrias (Nymphalidae). J. Lep. Soc. 39(4): 266-267. Ray1985ErythroxylumAgrias.pdf.

Ray, T. S. 1986. Growth correlations within the segment in the Araceae. Amer. J. Bot. 73(7): 993-1001. Ray1986GrowthCorrelationWithinSegmentAraceae.pdf.

Ray, T. S. 1987. Cyclic heterophylly in Syngonium (Araceae). Amer. J. Bot. 74(1): 16-26. Ray1987CyclicHeterophyllySyngonium.pdf.

Ray, T. S. 1987. Leaf types in the Araceae. Amer. J. Bot. 74(9): 1359-1372. Ray1987LeafTypesAraceae.pdf.

Ray, T. S. 1987. Diversity of shoot organization in the Araceae. Amer. J. Bot. 74(9): 1373-1387. Ray1987DiversityShootOrganizationAraceae.pdf.

Ray, T. S. 1988. Survey of shoot organization in the Araceae. Amer. J. Bot. 75(1): 56-84. Ray1988SurveyOfShootOrganizationAraceae.pdf.

Ray, T. S. 1989. Diversification of growth habits in the Araceae. Amer. J. Bot. 76(Suppl.): 276.

Ray, T. S, and S. Renner. 1990. Comparative studies on the morphology of the Araceae. A. Engler, 1877. Translation with an introduction, updated nomenclature, and a glossary. Englera 12. Pp. 140.

Ray, T. S. 1990. Application of ``eigenshape'' analysis to second order leaf shape ontogeny in Syngonium podophyllum (Araceae). In : Rohlf, F. J., and F. Bookstein [eds.], Proceedings of the Michigan Morphometrics Workshop, 201-213. University of Michigan Museum of Zoology.

Ray, T. S. 1990. Metamorphosis in the Araceae. Amer. J. Bot. 77(12): 1599-1609. Ray1990MetamorphosisInTheAraceae.pdf.

Ray, T. S. 1991. Is it alive, or is it GA? In : Belew, R. K., and L. B. Booker [eds.], Proceedings of the 1991 International Conference on Genetic Algorithms, 527-534. San Mateo, CA: Morgan Kaufmann.

Ray, T. S. 1991. Evolution and optimization of digital organisms. In : Billingsley K. R., E. Derohanes, H. Brown, III [eds.], Scientific Excellence in Supercomputing: The IBM 1990 Contest Prize Papers, Athens, GA, 30602: The Baldwin Press, The University of Georgia. Publication date: December 1991, Pp. 489-531.

Ray, T. S. 1991. Population dynamics of digital organisms. In : Langton, C. G. [ed.], Artificial Life II Video Proceedings. Redwood City, CA: Addison Wesley.

Ray, T. S. 1991. An approach to the synthesis of life. In : Langton, C., C. Taylor, J. D. Farmer, & S. Rasmussen [eds], Artificial Life II, Santa Fe Institute Studies in the Sciences of Complexity, vol. XI, 371-408. Redwood City, CA: Addison-Wesley. (in LaTeX format).

Ray, T. S. 1992. Evolution, ecology and optimization of digital organisms. Santa Fe Institute working paper 92-08-042. Download entire document.

Ray, T. S. 1992. Landmark eigenshape analysis: homologous contours; leaf shape in Syngonium (Araceae). Amer. J. Bot. 79(1): 69-76. Ray1992LandmarkEigenshapeAnalysis.pdf.

Ray, T. S. 1992. Foraging behaviour in tropical herbaceous climbers (Araceae). Journal of Ecology 80: 189-203. Ray1992ForagingBehaviour.pdf.

Ray, T. S. 1992. J'ai joué á Dieu et créé la vie dans mon ordinateur. Le Temps stratégique 47: 68-81. Ray1992LeTempsStrategique.pdf.

Ray, T. S. 1993. Quando giocavo a essere Dio. Virtual (Italian magazine), December 1993, 1(4): 40-46.

Ray, T. S. 1993. How I created life in a virtual universe. Not published in English, but published in French, Spanish and Italian. Download entire document.

Ray, T. S. 1993. Artificial Life: creatures in the computer. 1993 PC Forum Transcript, Pp. 119-126. EDventure Holdings Inc., New York.

Ray, T. S. 1994. An evolutionary approach to synthetic biology: Zen and the art of creating life. Artificial Life 1(1/2): 179-209. Reprinted In : Langton, C. G. [ed.], Artificial Life, an overview. The MIT Press, 1995, 179-209. Download entire document.

Ray, T. S. 1994. Artificial life and real computation. IPSJ-SIGAI Notes (Artificial Intelligence committee of the Information Processing Society of Japan) 94-AI-93 94(20): 31-38.

Ray, T. S. 1994. Jugué a ser Dios y creé la vida en mi computadora. In : Claudio Gutiérrez [ed], Epistemología e Informática, 257-267. San José, Costa Rica: UNED, 1993. Download entire document.

Ray, T. S. 1994. Using artificial life to create parallel and networked processes through natural evolution. Japanese Society of Artificial Intelligence, NCJSAI '94.

Ray, T. S. 1994. Evolution and complexity. In : Cowan, George A., David Pines and David Metzger [eds.], Complexity: Metaphors, Models, and Reality, Pp. 161-173. Addison-Wesley Publishing Co.

Ray, T. S. 1994. Evolving autonomous software agents. Proceedings of the 3rd IEEE International Workshop on Robot and Human Communication, Pp. 7-11. July 18-20, 1994, Nagoya. IEEE Press, 1994.

Ray, T. S. 1994. Evolution, complexity, entropy, and artificial reality. Physica D 75: 239-263. Download entire document.

Ray, T. S. 1994. Neural networks, genetic algorithms and artificial life: adaptive computation. Proceedings of the 1994 ALife, Genetic Algorithm and Neural Networks Seminar; Institute of Systems, Control and Information Engineers. Pp. 1-14.

Thearling, Kurt, and Ray, T. S. 1994. Evolving multi-cellular artificial life. Brooks, Rodney A., and Pattie Maes [eds.], Artificial Life IV conference proceedings, Pp. 283-288. The MIT Press, Cambridge. (in Acrobad, pdf, format).

Ray, T. S. 1994. Digital biodiversity. Proceedings of BIO Japan '94 Osaka, International Conference on Biotechnology, Pp. 119-126.

Ray, T. S. 1994. Netlife - Creating a jungle on the internet. In: Nonlocated online: digital territories, incorporations and the matrix, Knowbotic Research (Ed.), Medien Kunst Passagen 3/94, Passagen Verlag, Koeln-Wien 95, ISSN 1019-419-4193.

Ray, T. S. 1995. Keihana life and ATR. ATR Journal. Winter 1995, 18: 11.

Ray, T. S. 1995. Artificial Life and the Evolution of Distributed Processes. Journal of Japanese Society for Artificial Intelligence 10(2): 213-221.

Ray, T. S. 1995. Digital Evolution as a Complex System. Bussei Kenkyu 63(6): 692-695 (published by Bussei Kenkyu Kanko Kai).

Ray, T. S. 1995. A proposal to create a network-wide biodiversity reserve for digital organisms. ATR Technical Report TR-H-133. Download entire document.

Charrel, Agnés. 1995. Tierra network version. ATR Technical Report TR-H-145. postscript version, Acrobad (PDF) version. Download entire document, A4 version. Download entire document, US version (letter size).

Ray, T. S. 1995. An evolutionary approach to synthetic biology: Zen and the art of creating life. In: Langton, C. G. [ed.], Artificial Life, an overview. The MIT Press, 1995. Reprinted from: Artificial Life 1(1/2): 179-209. Download entire document.

Tom Ray, Jeremy Bruestle, Roger Gouin, Joseph Hart, Matt Jones, Kurt Thearling, Jan Hauser, Charles Ofria, and Titus Brown. 1995 Tierra workshop report. Unpublished (except here). Download entire document.

Ray, T. S. 1995. From the organic jungle to the digital jungle 1, and From the organic jungle to the digital jungle 2. Included in: ``Portraits in Cyberspace, an online art exhibition''.

Cho, Sung-Bae, and Ray, T. S. 1995. An evolutionary approach to program transformation and synthesis. International Journal of Software Engineering and Knowledge Engineering 5(2): 179-192. Also, ATR Technical Report TR-H-126.

Ray, T. S. 1996. Evolving complexity. International Symposium on Artificial Life and Robotics Proceedings. Four pages, not numbered.

Ray, T. S. 1996. Netlife - das Schaffen eines Dschungels im Internet. Stefan Iglhaut, Armin Medosch, Florian Rotzer (eds.), Stadt am Netz, Ansichten von Telepolis. Pp. 118-126. Berlin: Bollmann. local copy

Ray, T. S. 1996. A network-wide biodiversity reserve for digital organisms. In: Imagina 96 Proceedings. Pp. 15-26. Institut National De L'audiovisuel, Bry-sur-Marne, France.

Kimezawa, Tsukasa, and Ray, T. S. 1996. Beagle (New Tierra Front end Tool).

Ray, T. S. 1996. ``Soft Evolution.'' Takeshi Furuhashi (ed.), Proceedings of the International Workshop on Soft Computing in Industry '96. Pp. 241-244. The Institute of Electrical Engineers of Japan, Muroran Institute of Technology, Juroran, Hokkaido, Japan.

Ray, T. S. 1996. Evolution of parallel processes in organic and digital media. ``Natural and Artificial Parallel Computation'', Pp. 69-91. David Waltz, [ed.]. SIAM Press, Philadelphia.

Tom Ray, Hayward R Alker, Manor Askenazi, Jennifer Cobb, Tarek Elaydi, Linda Feferman, Simon Fraser, Gilly Furse, Joseph Hart, Jan Hauser, Matt Jones, Tsukasa Kimezawa, Will Rose, Walter Tackett, Kurt Thearling. 1996 Tierra workshop report. Unpublished (except here). Download entire document.

Ray, T. S. 1996. ``An Approach to the Synthesis of Life.'' Chapter 3 of M. A. Boden (ed.), The Philosophy of Artificial Life. (Oxford Readings in Philosophy.) Pp. 111-145. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Reprinted from C. G. Langton, C. Taylor, J. Doyne Farmer, & S. Rasmussen (eds.).

Ray, T. S. 1966. ``Software Evolution.'' Systems, Control and Information 40(8): 337-343.

Ray, T. S. 1996. ``Alife Methodology and its Applications.'' Proceedings of the Mathematical Modeling and Problem Solving Study Group (MPS) of the Information Processing Society of Japan. Information Processing Society of Japan , MPS10-1, pp.1-8 (1996.11)

Ray, T. S. 1997. Technical Report on the network experiment, April '96 to November '97. Published only on this web page.

Ray, T. S. 1997. Selecting Naturally for Differentiation. In: Koza, John R., Kalyanmoy Deb, Marco Dorigo, David B. Fogel, Max Garzon, Hitoshi Iba, and Rick L. Riolo [eds.]. Genetic Programming 1997: Proceedings of the Second Annual Conference, July 13-16, 1997, Stanford University, 414-419. San Francisco, CA: Morgan Kaufmann.

Ray, T. S. 1997. Evolving Complexity. Artificial Life and Robotics 1(1): 21-26.

Thearling, Kurt, and Thomas S. Ray. 1997. Evolving Parallel Computation, Complex Systems, 10(3):229-237. (June 1996)

Ray, T. S. 1997. Biological models of evolution: simulation and instantiation. In: A. Rinaldo, and A. Marani [Eds.], ``Biological Models'', Environmental Dynamics Series IV, Istituto Veneto di Scienze, Lettere ed Arti, 63-88. Venice, Italy.

Ray, T. S. 1997. A computational approach to evolutionary biology. In: ``Advanced Mathematical Approach to Biology'', Takeyuki Hida, [ed.], 1-107. World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd., Singapore. Also, ATR Technical Report TR-H-176.

Ray, T. S. 1997. Evolution as Artist. In: ``Art@Science'', Sommerer C., Mignonneau L. [Eds], 81-91. Springer Vienna/New York.

Ray, T. S. 1997. Kunstliches Leben und Evolution. In: "Laboratorium Mensch? Wege ins 21. Jahrhundert", Markus Diekow [ed.], 69-86. Herausgeber/Publisher: EXPO 2000 Hannover GmbH. ISBN 3-932958-00-4

Ray, T. S. 1998. Tierra documentation.

Ray, T. S. 1998. Tierra - La idea de crear una amplia red de reservas de biodiversidad para organismos digitales. In: ``Ars Telematica, Telecomunicacion, Internet y Ciberespacio'', Claudia Giannetti [ed.], 143-148. ACC L'Angelot, Barcelona. Translation to Spanish by Mela Davila.

Ray, T. S. 1998. Tierra: A ideia de criar uma ampla rede de reservas de biodiversidade para organismos digitais. In: ``Ars Telematica, Telecomunicacao, Internet e Ciberesspaco'', Claudia Giannetti [ed.], 253-263. Relogio D'Agua, Lisbon. Translation to Portuguese by Sonia Marques.

Ray, T. S. 1998. Konsten att skapa ett virtuellt universum. In: ``The Global Tendency Machine'', Jakob Lind [ed.], 120-128. Futurniture, Stockholm. Translation to Swedish by Ingemar Karlsson.

Ray, T. S. 1998. Konsten att skapa ett virtuellt universum. Framtider 2/98: 22-27. Institutet for Framtidsstudier, Stockholm, Sweden. Translation to Swedish by Ingemar Karlsson.

Ray, T. S. 1998. Evolution, ecology and optimization of digital organisms, In: ``Artificial Life and Evolutionary Systems'', Katsunori Shimohara [ed.], 32-80. Tokyo Electrical University, Tokyo. Translated to Japanese by Akira Imada.

Ray, T. S. 1998. Selecting Naturally for Differentiation: preliminary evolutionary results. Complexity, 3(5): 25-33. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Ray, T. S. and Joseph Hart. 1998 Evolution of Differentiated Multi-threaded Digital Organisms. In: Artificial Life VI proceedings, C. Adami, R. K. Belew, H. Kitano, and C. E. Taylor [eds.], 295-304. The MIT Press, Cambridge. Download entire document in MSWord format.

Ray, T. S. 1998. La vita artificiale. In: Frontiere Della Vita, Estratto Dal Volume I. Gilbert, Walter, and Glauco Tocchini Valentini, [eds.], 109-125. Istituto della Enciclopedia Italiana, Fondata da Giovanni Treccani.

Ray, T. S. 1999 (unpublished). Beyond the Turing Test. A PowerPoint presentation of a lecture that I presented at a panel discussion of Ray Kurzweil's book "The Age of Spiritual Machines", at the Gilder/Forbes Telecosm conference, September 15-17, 1998 in Lake Tahoe, USA. This lecture is also an amplification of the remarks I made at Digital Biota 2, The Second Annual Conference on Cyberbiology, September 10-13, 1998, Cambridge, UK.

Ray, T. S. 1999 (unpublished). Some Thoughts on Evolvability. This is a draft manuscript currently under development

Ray, T. S. 1999 (unpublished). Empirical Studies of Evolvability in Tierra, preliminary results. Presented at GECCO (Genetic and Evolutionary Computation COnference), Orlando, Florida, July 13-17, 1999. EvolvabilityGECCO.ppt (PowerPoint, 5,361,664 bytes).

Ray, T. S. 1999 (unpublished). Tierra lecture as a PowerPoint presentation.

Suzuki, H., Ray, T. S. 1999. Several Conditions to Cause Open-ended Evolution in Core-memory-type ALife Sytems. In: The Special Interest Group Notes of Information Processing Society of Japan: Mathematical Modeling and Problem Solving. 99-MPS-27 (1999) 9-12.

Ray, T. S. 1999. An Evolutionary Approach to Synthetic Biology: Zen and the Art of Creating Life. In: Virtual Worlds: Synthetic Universes, Digital Life and Complexity, Jean-Claude Heudin [ed.], 29-65. New England Complex Systems Institute Series on Complexity, Perseus Books (Sd), Pp. 320.

Ray, T. S. 1999. Evolution of Differentiated Multi-threaded Digital Organisms. In: Proceedings of the 1999 IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems, 1-10. Kyunghee Printing Co., Ltd., Korea.

Ray, T. S. 1999. Evolution of Differentiated Multi-threaded Digital Organisms. In: Proceedings of the Fourth International Symposium on Artificial Life and Robotics, M. Sugisaka and H. Tanaka [eds.], I-1. AROB, ISBN 4-9900462-9-3. Abstract only.

Ray, T. S., and Hart, Joseph. 1999. Tierra Tutorial. 1999 Genetic and Evolutionary Computation Conference Tutorial Program, 367-394. Morgan Kaufmann, San Francisco. Presented at GECCO (Genetic and Evolutionary Computation COnference), Orlando, Florida, July 13-17, 1999. Tutorial.htm (no figures, 53,797 bytes). Tutorial.rtf (no figures, 153,713 bytes). Tutorial.ppt (PowerPoint, 5,228,032 bytes). Tutorial.ppt.zip (zipped PowerPoint, 3,987,536 bytes).

Suzuki, H., Ray, T. S. 2000. Conditions to Facilitate the Evolvability of Digital Proteins. In: Proceedings of the Fifth Joint Conference on Information Sciences (JCIS 2000), Vol. I. Association for Intelligent Machinery Inc., USA (2000). Pp. 1078-1082

Ray, Tom, and Chenmei Xu. 2000. Measures of Evolvability in Tierra. Proc. of The Fifth Int. Symp. on Artificial Life and Robotics (AROB 5th'00), Masanori Sugisaka and Hiroshi Tanaka [eds.], Oita, Japan, I-12 - I-15.

Ray, T. S. and Joseph F. Hart. 2000. Evolution of Differentiation in Multithreaded Digital Organisms. In: ``Artificial Life VII, Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on Artificial Life,'' Mark A. Bedau, John S. McCaskill, Norman H. Packard, and Steen Rasmussen [eds.]. The MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, USA. Pp. 132--140

Ray, T. S. 2000. Aesthetically Evolved Virtual Pets. In: ``Artificial Life 7 Workshop Proceedings,'' Carlo C. Maley and Eilis Boudreau [eds.]. Proceedings of the Seventh Artificial Life Conference. Pp. 158-161.

Ray, T. S. 2000. Seven Years at ATR-HIP. ATR Journal, Vol.42, pp.11-12 (2000.2). Published in Japanese

Ray, T. S. 2000. Evolution of Complexity: Tissue Differentiation in Network Tierra. ATR Journal, No.40, pp.12-13 (2000.8) ( in Japanese)

Bedau, Mark A., John S. McCaskill, Norman H. Packard, Steen Rasmussen, Chris Adami, David G. Green, Takashi Ikegami, Kunihiko Kaneko, and Thomas S. Ray. 2001. Open Problems in Artificial Life. Artificial Life 6(4): 363-376.

Ray, T. S. 2001. Overview of Tierra at ATR. In: "Technical Information, No.15, Technologies for Software Evolutionary Systems". ATR-HIP. Kyoto, Japan.

Ray, T. S. 2001. Artificial Life. In: "Frontiers of Life, Volume One The Origins of Life", p. 107-124. Renato Dulbecco, David Baltimore, François Jacob, Rita Levi-Montalcini [eds.]. Academic Press. Download entire document.

Ray, T. S. 2001. Aesthetically Evolved Virtual Pets. Leonardo 34(4): 313-316.

Ray, T. S. 2002. Kurzweil's Turing Fallacy. In: Jay Richards [ed.]. "Are We Spiritual Machines?: Ray Kurzweil vs. the Critics of Strong AI", with George Gilder, Ray Kurzweil, William Dembski, John Searle, Michael Denton and Thomas Ray. Jay Wesley Richards [ed.]. Viking.

Ray, T. S. 2003. An Evolutionary Approach to Synthetic Biology: Zen in the Art of Creating Life. In: Advances in Evolutionary Computing, ed by Ghosh, A., Tsutsui, S. Natural Computing Series (Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York 2003) pp 479-517.

Ray, T. S. and Chenmei Xu. 2001 (published in 2003). Measures of evolvability in Tierra. Artificial Life and Robotics 5:211-214.

Ray, T. S. and Joseph Hart. 2003. Evolution of Differentiated Multi-threaded Digital Organisms. In: On Growth, Form and Computers, edited by Sanjeev Kumar and Peter J Bentley, Elsevier Science, Pp. 319-336.

I.Tanev and T.Ray. 2004. Evolution of Sidewinding Locomotion of Simulated Limbless, Weelless Robots, Proceedings of the 9th International Symposium on Artificial Life and Robotics (AROB04), Beppu, Japan, January 28-30 2004, pages 472-475.

Tanev, Ivan, T.Ray and Andrzej Buller. 2004. Evolution, Robustness and Adaptation of Sidewinding Locomotion of Simulated Snake-like Robot, Proceedings of the Genetic and Evolutionary Computation Conference (GECCO-2004). June 26-30, 2004, Seattle, USA, 627-639.

Tanev, Ivan, T.Ray and Andrzej Buller. 2004. Evolutionary Design, Robustness and Adaptation of Sidewinding Locomotion of Simulated Limbless Wheelless Robot, Proceedings of the 2004 IEEE Congress on Evolutionary Computation (CEC-2004), Portland, Oregon, USA, June 20-23, 2004, 2312-2319.

I.Tanev, Thomas Ray and Andrzej Buller. 2005. Evolution, Robustness and Adaptation of Sidewinding Locomotion of Simulated Snake-like Robot, Evolvable Machines: Theory & Practice, Series: Studies in Fuzziness and Soft Computing, Vol. 161, Nedjah, Nadia; de Macedo Mourelle, Luiza (Eds.), 2005, pp.21-41, Springer, ISBN: 3-540-22905-1.

I.Tanev, T.Ray and A.Buller. 2005. Automated Evolutionary Design, Robustness and Adaptation of Sidewinding Locomotion of a Simulated Snake-like Robot. IEEE Transactions on Robotics 21(4):632-645.

I.Tanev and T.Ray. 2005. Evolution of Sidewinding Locomotion of Simulated Limbless, Wheelless Robots, Artificial Life and Robotics, an International Journal, 9:117-122, Springer-Verlag.

Ray, T. S. 2006. Review of: Life's Solution: Inevitable Humans in a Lonely Universe, by Simon Conway Morris. Artificial Life 12(3):453-456.

I.Tanev, T.Ray and K.Shimohara. 2007. On the Analogy of the Emergent Properties of Evolved Locomotion Gaits of Simulated Snakebot. In: Aleksandar Lazinica (Ed.), Mobile Robotics: Towards New Applications, pp.559-578. Pro Literatur Verlag, Germany / ARS, Austria, 2006, ISBN:3-86611-314-5. http://s.i-techonline.com/Book/Mobile-Robots-Towards-New-Applications/ISBN978-3-86611-314-5.html

Ray, T. S. 2009. Artificial Life Programs and Evolution. In: Michael Ruse and Joseph Travis editors, Companion to Evolution. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press. Pp. 429-433. Published Feb 12, 2009, Darwin's 200th birthday.

Jie Shao and Thomas S. Ray. 2010. "Maintenance of Species Diversity by Predation in the Tierra System," In H. Fellermann, M. Dorr M. M. Hanczyc, L. L. Laursen, S. Maurer, D. Merkle, P. Monnard, K. Stoy S. Rasmussen (eds.) Artificial Life XII: Proceedings of the Twelfth International Conference on the Synthesis and Simulation of Living Systems, pp. 533-540. MIT Press, Cambridge, MA.

Ray, T. S. 2010. Psychedelics and the Human Receptorome. PLoS ONE. http://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0009019, February 2, 2010.

Lo, Esther. 2012. Neuromodulation in Artificial Systems. Masters Thesis. Department of Biology, University of Oklahoma.

Ray, T. S. 2012. Network Tierra. In: Sara Diamond (Ed.), Euphoria & Dystopia: The Banff New Media Institute Dialogues, pp. 347-351. Banff/Toronto: The Banff Centre Press & Riverside Architectural Press, 2012.

Ray, T. S. 2012. Mental Organs and the Origins of Mind. In L. Swan (Ed) Origins of Mind, pp. 301-326. New York / Heidelberg: Springer.

Ray, T.S. 2013. Future minds, mental organs and ways of knowing. Technoetic Arts: A Journal of Speculative Research 10(2&3):185-195, Bristol: Intellect. doi: 10.1386/tear.10.2-3.185_1

Ray, T.S. & Xu, C. 2013. A Branching Future of Mental Engineering. TRUCE Speculative Fiction Workshop: Unconventional Computing in 2070 http://www.truce-project.eu/truce-workshop-september-2013.html.

Ray, T. S. 2013. Future Minds, Mental Organs, and Ways of Knowing. In: Evolution Haute Couture: Art and Science in the Postbiological Age, pp. 320-335. Bulatov, D. (ed.) (NCCA: Kaliningrad).

Ray, T. S. 2014. Afterword: A Branching Future of Synthetic Minds. In: Beta Life, Stories From an A-Life Future, pp. 315-321. Martyn Amos & Ra Page (eds.) (Comma Press, England, www.commapress.co.uk).

Tierra Photoessay.

Media coverage about Tierra.


Go to Tom Ray's home page. Go to the Tierra home page.


Welcome to Tom Ray's publications