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Gould, Steven J. 1989. Wonderful life. W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. Pp. 347.

Morris, S. Conway. 1989. Burgess shale faunas and the Cambrian explosion. Science 246: 339-346.

Maynard Smith, J. and E. Szathmáry, The Major Transitions in Evolution (Oxford: Freeman, 1995).

Pargellis, A. N. 1996a. The spontaneous generation of digital ``life''. Physica D. 91:86-96.

Pargellis, A. N. 1996b. The evolution of self-replicating computer organisms. Physica D. 98:111-127.

Ray, T. S. 1991. An approach to the synthesis of life. In: Langton, C., C. Taylor, J. D. Farmer, & S. Rasmussen [eds], Artificial Life II, Santa Fe Institute Studies in the Sciences of Complexity, vol. X, 371-408. Redwood City, CA: Addison-Wesley. Available at:

Ray, T. S. 1994a. An evolutionary approach to synthetic biology: Zen and the art of creating life. Artificial Life 1(1/2): 195-226. Available at:

Ray, T. S. 1994b. Evolution, complexity, entropy, and artificial reality. Physica D 75: 239-263. Available at:

Ray, T. S. 1995. A proposal to create a network-wide biodiversity reserve for digital organisms. ATR Technical Report TR-H-133. Available at:

Ray, T. S. 1997. Selecting Naturally for Differentiation. In: Koza, John R., Kalyanmoy Deb, Marco Dorigo, David B. Fogel, Max Garzon, Hitoshi Iba, and Rick L. Riolo [eds.]. Genetic Programming 1997: Proceedings of the Second Annual Conference, July 13-16, 1997, Stanford University, 414-419. San Francisco, CA: Morgan Kaufmann.

Ray, T. S., and Hart, Joseph. Submitted. Evolution of differentiated multi-threaded digital organisms. Proceedings of Alife VI.

Thearling, Kurt, and Ray, T. S. 1994. Evolving multi-cellular artificial life. Brooks, Rodney A., and Pattie Maes [eds.], Artificial Life IV conference proceedings, Pp. 283-288. The MIT Press, Cambridge.

Thomas S.Ray
Mon Feb 23 15:24:22 JST 1998