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Interview by Martin Ball for The Entheogenic Evolution, podcast. January 14, 2016. "MDMA and Organs of the Mind"

Interview by Daniel Faggella for Sentientpotential. October 6, 2013. "Non-Android Humans May Still Be Enhanced"

Interview by Philip Comella. Conversations Beyond Science and Religion - Science Explores the Spiritual Experience, podcast. February 4, 2013. "Organs of the Mind"

Interview by Martin Ball for The Entheogenic Evolution, podcast. September 27, 2012. "Organs of the Mind"

Computer (Junhyong Kim, USA) July, 2002: "Computers are from Mars, Organisms are from Venus." Local Copy

1000: Richard Saul Wurman's Who's Really Who (Richard Saul Wurman, USA) listing "the 1000 most creative people in the United States"

The Power of Ideas (USA) 2001: PBS Television

Time Magazine (Julian Dibbell, USA) June 24, 2001: "The Race to Build Intelligent Machines"

HMS Beagle (N. A. Johnson, USA) 2001: "Do Tierran Programs Dream of Darwinian Dynamics?"

Beyond Computers, "The Meaning Of Life", Show #186. SNP Communications,

Tower of Babel (Robert T. Pennock) 1999: ``Tower of Babel: The Evidence against the New Creationism.'' Book.

Yahoo Internet Life May 1999.

Artificial Worlds (Richard Morris, USA) 1999: ``Artificial Worlds, Computers, Complexity, and the Riddle of Life.'' Book: Tierra reviewed throughout.

The Age of Spiritual Machines (Ray Kurzweil, USA) 1999: ``The Age of Spiritual Machines, When Computers Exceed Human Intelligence.'' Book: Tierra reviewed in chapter 2: ``The Intelligence of Evolution.''

Introduction to Artificial Life (Christoph Adami, USA). Book: Tierra reviewed throughout.

Leonardo Electronic Almanac Archive (Edward A. Shanken, USA) July 9, 1998: ``Life as We Know It and/or Life as It Could Be: Epistemology and the Ontology/Ontogeny of Artificial Life''.

PBS TV (in a seven part series on Mathematics, USA) April 1998: ``Life by the Numbers: Patterns of Nature'' Television.

Science (Kevin Kelly, USA) Februaray 13, 1998: "The Third Culture." Local Copy

Norman Transcript (Anon, USA) January 29, 1998: ``Noted scientist accepts professorship at OU, Boren says addition underlines devotion to research base.''

Daily Oklahoman (Jim Killackey, USA) January 29, 1998: ``Noted researcher accepts post at OU, Biologist creator of artificial `life form'.''

Tulsa World (Randy Krehbiel, USA) January 29, 1998: OU hires, praises famous biologist.''

The Oklahoma Daily (Neil Cather, USA) January 29, 1998: ``Regents vote to hire acclaimed research scientist, Thomas S. Ray received a tenured professorship in the zoology department.''

Silicon Second Nature (Stefan Helmreich, USA) 1998: ``Silicon Second Nature, Culturing Artificial Life in a Digital World.'' Book: Tierra reviewed throughout.

Cybergrace (Jennifer Cobb, USA) 1998: ``Cybergrace, The Search for God in the Digital World.'' Book: Tierra reviewed in chapter 6: ``Gods of Persuasion.''

Slant (Greg Bear, USA) 1997. Science fiction novel. P. 252.

The Rise of Endymion (Dan Simmons, USA) 1997. Science fiction novel. P. 270-276.

Donnerjack (Roger Zelazny and Jane Lindskold, USA) 1977. Science fiction novel. P. 21.

Darwin Among the Machines (George B. Dyson, USA) 1997: ``Darwin Among the Machines, the evolution of global intelligence.'' Book: Tierra reviewed in chapter 7: ``Symbiogenesis''

Would-Be Worlds (John Casti, USA) 1997: ``Would-Be Worlds, how simulation is changing the frontiers of science.'' Book: Tierra reviewed in chapter 4: ``Artificial Worlds''

New York Times (Sandra Blakeslee, USA) November 25, 1997: ``Computer `life form' mutates in an evolution experiment, natural selection is found at work in a digital world.''

Wired (Jesse Freund, USA) July 1997: ``Neo-Cambrianism, digital space life-forms.''

Discover (Next Step, USA) broadcast repeatedly in 1996 and 1997. Episode 79, A-Life. Television.

Wired (Steven Alan Edwards, USA) April 1997: "It's Alive." Local Copy

Los Angeles Times (Amy Harmon, USA) January 7, 1997: ``2001 Is Near, but 'Hal' Is Not; Artificial intelligence has not fulfilled the awesome--and scary--promise of the sci-fi classic.''

SFI Bulletin (Janet Sites, USA) Winter 1996-97. ``Costa Rica and the Tierra Web, Tom Ray's Organic and Digital Reserves.''

After Thought (James Bailey, USA) 1996: ``After Thought, the computer challenge to human intelligence.'' Book: Tierra reviewed in the chapter ``The AfterMath''

MTV (Zoo TV, USA) Fall 1996. Television

Pacific Discovery (Edward S. Ross, USA) Summer 1996: ``Droppings from on high, In tropical forests nothing goes to waste.''

Guggenheim Magazine (Jon Ippolito, USA) Summer 1996: ``Cybercurator.''

Intelligent Agent (Richard Ledes, Christiane Paul, USA) April 1996: ``Missing Links of Digital Evolution''

Technology Review (Robert J. Crawford, USA) April 1996: ``What's it all about, Alife? Visionaries ben on creating `artificial life' in computers hope to answer questions that have long plagued a variety of fields. But unless they establish some connection with the material world, the larger scientific community may continue to dismiss their work.''

Time (Julian Dibbell, USA) March 25, 1996: ``The race to build intelligent machines, Computers can't read the Britannica or talk about their feelings -- but they're working on it.''

The Review (Derek Harper, USA) 2-2-96: ``The biology professor who grows viruses. Computer viruses.''

Life on the Screen (Sherry Turkle, USA) 1995: ``Life on the Screen, Identity in the age of the internet.'' Book: Tierra reviewed in chapter 6: ``Artificial life as the new frontier''

Wired (Stewart Brand, USA) September 1995: ``The Physicist. As director of Microsoft's Advanced Technology Group, Nathan Myhrvold oversees 650 serfs and spends $150 million a year to keep Bill on top.'' Local Copy

Wired (Jessie Scanlon, USA) September 1995: ``Readme. On the bookshelves of the digerati.''

Wired (Michael Schrage, USA) July 1995: ``Revolutionary Evolutionist. For Richard Dawkins, genes are selfish, the watchmaker is blind, and the mystery of life is no mystery - it's digital.'' Local Copy

I.D. Magazine (Larry Keeley, USA) May? 1995: ``TED6: It's alive!, A tour of the new species of living organisms presented at this venerable gathering.''

Newsweek (Adam Rogers, USA) February 27, 1995: ``Ideas: Good Bugs?''

Wired (Julian Dibbell, USA) February 1995: ``Viruses are good for you. Spawn of the devil, computer viruses may help us realize the full potential of the net.'' Local Copy

The Quark and the Jaguar (Murray Gell-Mann, USA) 1994: ``The Quark and the Jaguar, adventures in the simple and the complex.'' Book: Tierra reviewed in chapter 20: ``Machines that learn or simulate learning''

Out of Control (Kevin Kelly, USA) 1994: ``Out of Control, the rise of neo-biological civilization.'' Book: Tierra reviewed in chapter 15: ``Artificial evolution'' Local Copy

The Collapse of Chaos (Jack Cohen and Ian Stewart, USA) 1994: ``The Collapse of Chaos, discovering simplicity in a complex world.'' Book: Tierra reviewed in chapter 10: ``The evolution of possibilities''

The Millennium Whole Earth Catalog (Howard Rheingold editor, USA) 1994: ``Tierra.''

Wired (Gordy Slack, USA) August 1994: ``Revolution in A-Life Evolution.'' Local Copy

Pacific Discovery (Gordy Slack, USA) Summer 1994: ``Virtual Evolution.''

Science (Faye Flam, USA) May 20, 1994: ``Ecologist plans to let cyberlife run wild in internet reserve.''

Science (Peter Yodzis, USA) April 8, 1994: ``Thoughtplay'' (review of Games of Life).

Computer Graphics World (Diana Phillips Mahoney, USA) July 1993: ``That's Life.''

PC Magazine (Michael J. Miller, USA) May 25, 1993: ``It's Alive! Lots of computer users give funny names to their computers. But did you ever stop to think that your computer programs might actually be alive?''

U.S. News & World Report (Karen F. Schmidt, USA) May 3, 1993: ``Computing the primordial ooze. Scientists are modeling the origins of life.''

Artificial Life Playhouse (Stephen Prata, USA), ``Artificial Life Playhouse, Evolution at Your Fingertips.'' Book: Tierra reviewed in chapter 3: ``A-Life: Discoveries and Prospects.''

Release 1.0 (Esther Dyson, USA) February 21, 1993: ``Tom Ray on Artificial Life -- It's A Jungle Out There!''

Computer Graphics World (Diana Phillips Mahoney, USA) February 1993: ``Artificial Life, organisms and systems created in the computer exhibit behaviors characteristic of natural evoltuion.''

Artificial Life (Steven Levy, USA) 1992: ``Artificial Life, The Quest for a New Creation.'' Book: Tierra reviewed in chapter: ``Alchemists and Parasites''

Whole Earth Review (Steven Levy, USA) Fall 1992: ``Artificial Life, The Quest for a New Creation.'' Reprinted from a book of the same name published by Pantheon Books.

Scientific American (Elizabeth Corcoran, USA) October 1992: ``The Edge of Chaos, Complexity is a metaphor at the Santa Fe Institute.''

Science (Mitchell Waldrop, USA) August 21, 1992: ``Artificial Life's Rich Harvest, Startlingly realistic simulations of organisms, ecosystems, and evolution are unfolding on computer screens as researchers try to recreate the dynamics of living things.''

Release 1.0 (Esther Dyson, USA) April 28, 1992: ``Artificial Worlds: A Field Scientist in Tierra Cognita.''

Scientific American (John Rennie, USA) January 1992: ``Cybernetic Parasites... Tierra... has been hailed as the most sophisticated artificial-life program yet developed...''

The Chronicle of Higher Education (David Wilson, USA) December 4, 1991: ``Approaching Artificial Life on a Computer. Survival-of-the-fittest electronic organisms dramatically illustrate Darwinian principles.''

The Garden in the Machine (Claus Emmeche, USA) 1991: ``The Garden in the Machine, The Emerging Science of Artificial Life.'' Book: Tierra reviewed in chapter 2: ``What is Life.''

Associated Press (Theresa Humphrey, USA) October 1991: ``Bringing life to computer. U of D biologist's program is self-replicating, shows evolution.''

Computerworld (Michael Alexander, USA) September 30, 1991: ``Tierra adds to evolutionary studies. A computerized world created on an IBM PC could have real-world benefits for scientists.''

San Jose Mercury News (Anon, USA) August 27, 1991: ``Computer `creature' mimics life.''

New York Times (Malcolm Browne, USA) August 27, 1991: ``Lively Computer Creation Blurs Definition of Life. Software forms, obeying Darwin's rules, vie to avoid the `reaper'.''

Science News (John Travis, USA) August 10, 1991: ``Digital Darwinism: Electronic Ecosystem. Evolving `life' flourishes and surprises in a novel electronic world''.

Technology Review (Susan Scheck, USA) April 14, 1991: ``Is It Live Or Is It Memory?''

Smithsonian (Mark Moffett, USA) date unknown: ``These plants scratch, claw and strangle their way to the top. Tropical climbers will do almost anything to reach the canopy and life-giving light; some even start at the top and grow down''.

Harvard Gazette (Anon, USA) September 30, 1997: ``Are your plants `behaving'? Thomas Ray says they most certainly are''.

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Thomas S.Ray
Thu Aug 24 11:22:15 JST 1995