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Darwin, Charles. 1859. On the origin of species by means of natural selection or the preservation of favored races in the struggle for life. Murray, London.

Feferman, Linda. 1992. Simple rules... complex behavior [video]. Santa Fe, NM: Santa Fe Institute.

Ray, T. S. 1991a. Is it alive, or is it GA? In : Belew, R. K., and L. B. Booker [eds.], Proceedings of the 1991 International Conference on Genetic Algorithms, 527-534. San Mateo, CA: Morgan Kaufmann.

Ray, T. S. 1991b. An approach to the synthesis of life. In : Langton, C., C. Taylor, J. D. Farmer, & S. Rasmussen [eds], Artificial Life II, Santa Fe Institute Studies in the Sciences of Complexity, vol. XI, 371-408. Redwood City, CA: Addison-Wesley.

Ray, T. S. 1991c. Population dynamics of digital organisms. In : Langton, C. G. [ed.], Artificial Life II Video Proceedings. Redwood City, CA: Addison Wesley.

Ray, T. S. 1991d. Evolution and optimization of digital organisms. In : Billingsley K. R., E. Derohanes, H. Brown, III [eds.], Scientific Excellence in Supercomputing: The IBM 1990 Contest Prize Papers, Athens, GA, 30602: The Baldwin Press, The University of Georgia.

Ray, T. S. 1994. An evolutionary approach to synthetic biology: Zen and the art of creating life. Artificial Life 1(1/2): 195-226. MIT Press.

Thomas S.Ray
Thu Aug 3 13:06:00 JST 1995